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Historical maps are labelled in their native and contemporary languages to be as faithful as possible to the many ancient sources I have used, and with fonts developed by me to write in their respective writing systems. They are highly detailed—in the case of the Sasanian Empire, there are up to 1200 place names of diverse types (political, such as populations, fortifications, districts, provinces, countries and ethnic groups, and physical, such as mountains, mountain ranges, deserts, rivers, lakes and seas). The base maps have also been developed by me from DEM data and subsequently coloured by me. In addition, geodata have been modified to correctly represent historical toponymy.

Do not use without explicit permission. All images shown on this website are owned by me, the author, and are protected by copyright.


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